The most important thing in communication is hearing what isn’t said.
Levels of listening
Actually most of us have heard of the different learning techniques such as active listening, repeating of the words of the others or other tricks we can use to make it obvious that we listen attentively. To listen does not necessarily mean to remain silent and shake politely your head in agreement. Let’s take a look at some of the levels of listening. We will also explore their effect on our ability to understand the people and the things that happen to us in our lives.
Lack of listening
The listener’s mind is busy with other thoughts or is overloaded with information. The busy mind does not allow listening.
Taking the word out of someone’s mouth
At this level the mind of the listener works mostly using memory then in the present moment. It is as if someone mentions something which brings out a memory of an event or experience. The reaction of the listener is to feel that they want to share the memory (no matter if it is connected to the topic of conversation).
To agree or not agree
At this level the listener is obsessed with agreeing or arguing with what they hear. Here they make evaluations on the grounds of their past beliefs (past experience) and do not listen in reality.
To apply what was heard
When the brain is calm and stops noticing the things with which it agrees or disagrees a higher level of listening is achieved. At this level the information which heard is perceived as something which can be used and applied. The listener can ask the question “What does this piece of information means to me?” or “How this what I hear can be useful to me?”, or “What coincides from what I hear?”
At this level we listen to understand. Our attention is completely in the present moment trying to hear not only everything that is said but also to catch the elusive elements of the communication, those beyond the words, the hidden meaning.
Main Instruments and Rules for Good Listening
- Limit or stop your own talking – you cannot listen if you are talking. Do not take the silence necessarily for attention. If your interlocutor is silent this does not mean that they are necessarily listening. They can be absorbed in their own thoughts.
- Pay full attention to your interlocutor – make the speaker feel at ease. Help them feel free to share.
- Show to the speaker that you want to listen – show with your appearance and behavior that you are interested
- Do not get distracted and do not do something else while someone is speaking to you – do not bang with fingers, turn pages over, etc.
- Be patient, do not interrupt your interlocutor – give them enough time. If you have to interrupt a serious conversation provide help afterwards to recover the broken flow of the thoughts of the speaker.
- Clarify information – ask clarifying questions and explain things to yourself (ex. “I am not sure that I understand well. Could you repeat?”. Paraphrase what was said. That encourages the speaker and shows them that you are listening.
- Don’t ask too many questions – the big number of questions bothers the speaker, takes out the initiative from them and puts them in a defensive position
- Give yourself an account about the feelings of the interlocutor –put yourself in their shoes, to see their point of view. Show compassion to the speaker. When you listen to over exited interlocutor reflex their emotional condition without falling under the influence of their feelings. Otherwise you can miss the meaning of the message.
- Maintain eye contact.
- Pay attention to the non-verbal communication
- Open your consciousness and neglect your prejudices – do not hurry into conclusions and evaluations. They are a barrier for the meaningful communication.
- Limit or stop your own talking – you cannot listen if you are talking. This is the first and the last rule because all of the others depend on it.
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The training program “Training of Trainers” is an educational product that is currently missing in the partner countries – Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania. Due to the early stage of development of the youth sector and youth work in these countries the educational materials aimed at non-formal learning are still limited and insufficient. The lack of adequate educational framework for training of youth workers in the field of formal education leads to inefficient use of the capacity of professionals.
This course fills a gap in the youth sector, namely the need of methodologies for the preparation of trainers, who are able to train youth workers. This course will set the basis for the preparation of teams of trainers of youth workers. The course will serve the goal of development of youth work in the participating countries and other interested parties. A large number of youth workers can be trained according to the methodology at national and international level to use and promote non-formal learning as a tool to enhance the realization of young people in the labor market and increase their social cohesion.
Part 1 General concepts
- Lesson 1 – What is a trainer? Ethics, morality and responsibility – video
- Lesson 1 – What is a trainer? Ethics, morality and responsibility – text
- Lesson 2 – Principles of Non-formal learning – text
- Lesson 2 – Principles of non-formal learning – web links
- Lesson 2- Principles of non-formal learning – tips and tricks
- Ask yourself – Check your values – reflection
Part 2 Theoretical framework
- Lesson 3 – Most influential theories of learning – text
- Lesson 3 – Most influential theories of learning – web links
- Lesson 4 – Learning Pyramid (Edgar Dales Cone Of Experience) – text
- Lesson 4 – Learning Pyramid (Edgar Dales Cone Of Experience) – web links
- Lesson 5 – Holistic Teaching and Learning 1 – Whole-brain learning – text
- Lesson 5 – Holistic Teaching and Learning 2 – Cooperative learning – text
- Lesson 5 – Holistic Teaching and Learning 3 – Knowledge of whole systems – text
- Lesson 5 – Holistic Teaching and Learning 4 – How to Use the Brain More Effectively – video
- Lesson 6 – Theory of Self-Directed Learning – text
- Lesson 7 – Multiple Intelligence Theory – text
- Lesson 7 – Multiple Intelligence Theory – video
- Lesson 7 – Multiple Intelligence Theory – web links
- Lesson 8 – Social Learning Theory – text
- Lesson 8 – Social Learning Theory – video
- Lesson 9 – Self-efficacy – text
- Lesson 9 – Self-efficacy – video
- Lesson 10 – Experiential learning theory – text
- Lesson 10 – Experiential learning theory – video
- Lesson 11 – Model of Learning styles – text
- Lesson 12 – Learning motivation – text
- Lesson 13 – Learning flow – text
- Lesson 13 – Learning flow – video and web links
- Lesson 14 – The four stages of competence – text and web links
- Lesson 15 – Key competences for lifelong learning – text
- Lesson 16 – Facilitation, Coaching, Mentoring and Training – text
- Lesson 16 – Facilitation, Coaching, Mentoring and Training – video and web links
- Lesson 17 – Developmental Stages of Youth – text
- Lesson 18 – Characteristics of Adult Learners – text
Part 3 Practical skills
- Lesson 19 – Setting learning goals – tips and tricks
- Lesson 20 – Taxonomy of learning goals – text
- Ask yourself – Learning goals vs. Learners needs – reflection
- Lesson 21 – Group Dynamics and Social learning: The Layers Effect – text
- Lesson 22 – Working with groups: Stages of Group Development (group dynamics) 1 – text
- Lesson 22 – Working with groups: Stages of Group Development (group dynamics) 2 – text
- Lesson 22 – Working with groups: Stages of Group Development (group dynamics) 3 – text
- Lesson 22 – Working with groups: Non-formal Methods – video
- Lesson 22 – Working with groups: Before taking action – tips and tricks
- Lesson 22 – Working with groups: Activities collection – try this
- Ask yourself – Group dynamics processes – reflection
- Lesson 23 – Assignment of Activities – text
- Lesson 24 – Communication: Johari window – text
- Lesson 24 – Communication: Listening – text
- Lesson 24 – Communication: Giving and receiving feedback – text
- Lesson 24 – Communication: How to deal with disruptive behavior – text
- Lesson 24 – Communication – tips and tricks
- Lesson 25 – Working in team of trainers – text
- Lesson 26 – The Art of Co-Working – text
- Ask yourself – Team work – reflection
- Lesson 27 – Active reviewing – text
- Lesson 27 – Active reviewing – video
- Lesson 27 – Active reviewing – web links
- Lesson 28 – Debriefing Experiential Learning Exercises – text
- Lesson 29 – Six phases of debriefing – text
- Lesson 30 – Learning methods – text
- Lesson 31 – Training design: ADDIE Model – text
- Lesson 31 – Training design: Construction of the training program – text
- Ask yourself – Training design – reflection
- Lesson 31 – Training design: Process activities – text
- Lesson 31 – Training design: Secret of Happiness – try this
- Ask yourself – Training design – reflection
- Lesson 32 – Training delivery: Things to Pay Attention to during a session – text
- Lesson 32 – Training delivery: Guidelines for the use of interactive games and activities – tips and tricks
- Lesson 33 – Training evaluation – text
- Lesson 33 – Training evaluation – web links
- Lesson 33 – Training evaluation – try this
- Lesson 34 – Training aids: Analogies – text
- Lesson 34 – Training aids: Storytelling – text
- Lesson 34 – Training aids: Storytelling – web links and tools
- Lesson 34 – Training aids: Storytelling – tips and tricks
- Lesson 34 – Training aids: Visuals – text
- Lesson 34 – Training aids: Visuals – web links
Last part Recomendations
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