Training of trainers – NFL and interactive methods in Youth work – ACHIEVE

Lesson 20 – Taxonomy of learning goals – text

text lesson

What is a goal?

  • According to the philosophical-sociological definition the goal is a mental and desired result of a given activity
  • In the pedagogy the goal is a mental and desired (possible and desired) result from a training activity (in which the favorable and the unfavorable conditions are taken into account)

Action Areas

  • Cognitive – The area includes goals from remembering and reproduction of the studied material to problem solving. During the process the existing knowledge has to be reconsidered, or put into new combinations together with previously studied ideas, methods, procedures (action modes), also including the possibility to repeat the solution process.
  • Affective (emotional – value) – It includes the goals of formation personal emotional relations to the events in the surrounding world from the simple perception, interest, willingness to respond to the uptake of value orientations and attitudes and their active manifestation. In this area fall such purposes as the formation of interests and inclinations, experience of different emotions, forming an attitude, awareness, and its manifestation in the activity.
  • Psychomotor – It includes objectives that are associated with the formation of various types of motor activity, of manipulation activity, and neuromuscular coordination. This area concerns writing and speech habits, and also targets the goals placed within the physical and working skills.

Taxonomy application

  • In each actionareadifferent levels are distinguished which arearranged by theprinciple “fromsimple to complex.”
  • These levelscan be examinedas different stages of difficulty– in order to completea certain level the previous must bemasteredbeforehand. The approachenables the measurabilityof the knowledge,skills and attitudesof the students. The taxonomyis used forclassification of the goals in the learning process.

How to describe a goal

The goal has to be clear, concrete, measurable and observable


Cognitive taxonomy (Revised Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy – Bloom, Anderson and Krathwohl)

Description of Levels (process) Active verbs describing the process
Remembering – recall of the information needed from the memory.

They (the students) can repeat and/or remember the information. (To remember):

·      Recognition – Answers to “right or wrong” questions, selection of an object among others similar to it

·      Recalling – Listing facts, events, occurrences

Repeat, reproduce, define, describe, recognize, order
Understanding – presentation of one’s own opinion about the studied material. The students can understand and/or realize ideas and concepts (To understand):

·      Interpretation – retelling of some information in one’s own words

·      Example giving – Search and explanation of examples confirming facts, events, occurrences

·      Classification- Distribution of information in groups

·      Summary – Deduction of general characteristics, indications, etc.

·      Conclusion – Information analysis, represented in a certain form and presentation of conclusions

·      Comparison – Conduction of comparative analysis of events and processes

·      Description – Use of diagrams, schemes for presentation of information

Classify, discuss, explain, recognize and defend, report, select, translate, paraphrase
Applying – use of the procedure. The students can use the information in a new way (To apply):

·      Performance – Conduction of an experiment

·      Application – Adoption of the experiment

Select, demonstrate, dramatize, illustrate, interpret, operate, compose, organize, sketch, solve, use, write
Analyzing – breaking of the concept into several constituent parts and describing how those parts are related to the entity. Can the students distinguish and analyze different parts? (To analyze):

·      Differentiation – listing of the most important facts. Categorization of facts, preparation of schemes and diagrams.

·      Organization – Making of schemes and diagrams showing the place of the event or the process in its surroundings.

Compare, criticize, state, differentiate, test, formulate questions, differentiate, experiment
Evaluating – arguments based on criteria and standards. Can the students evaluate and refer their decisions? (To evaluate?)

·      Verification – Examination of logic and arguments. Setting of criteria

·      Critics – Finding the best method and proofs; Search of arguments in favor or against something

Argue, appraise, judge, select, evaluate, refer, value


Creating – putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole. Defining the components of a new pattern or structure. Are the students capable of creating a new product and/or new point of view? ( To create):

·      Generalization – Creating list of criteria, use of several hypotheses to explain the event or the process, creation of alternative hypothesis based on criteria.

·      Planning – Creation of a schedule (plan) for the realization of the idea

·      Production – Implementation of the idea.

Construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write


Affective taxonomy (David Krathwohl)

Description of Levels (process) Active verbs describing the process
Receiving – describes the stage of being aware of or sensitive to the existence of certain ideas, material, or phenomena and being willing to tolerate them. Examples include: to differentiate, to accept, to listen (for), to respond to.


·        Realization

·        Readiness or willingness to accept something/to accept oneself

·        Selective attention

Ask, attend, describe, follow, help, define, listen, name, observe, show
Responding – describes the second stage of the taxonomy and refers to a committment in some small measure to the ideas, materials, or phenomena involved by actively responding to them. Examples are: to comply with, to follow, to commend, to volunteer, to spend leisure time in, to acclaim.


·        submissive response

·        voluntary response

·        satisfaction by the reaction

Try, agree, ask, help, communicate, concentrate, follow (obey), assist, discuss, react
Valuing – means being willing to be perceived by others as valuing certain ideas, materials, or phenomena. Examples include: to increase measured proficiency in, to relinquish, to subsidize, to support, to debate.


·        Accepting a the value orientation (in the daily life this corresponds to the term “opinion”)

·        Preferences towards value orientation

·        Attachment, conviction

Assume, accept, compose, choose, desire, explain, justify , prefer, offer, share
Organization – is the fourth stage of Krathwohl’s taxonomy and involves relating the new value to those one already holds and bringing it into a harmonious and internally consistent philosophy. Examples are: to discuss, to theorize, to formulate, to balance, to examine.


·        Conceptualization of the value orientation and consideration of one’s own attitude

·        Organization of the value system

Adapt, categorize, choose, create, formulate, generalize, integrate, modify, organize, evaluate, systematize
Characterization – by value or value set means acting consistently in accordance with the values the individual has internalized. Examples include: to revise, to require, to be rated high in the value, to avoid, to resist, to manage, to resolve.


·        Summary of values

·        Full internalization (assimilation) or distribution of the value orientations over the activity.

Act, defend, encourage, show patience, influence,   justify, listen, is aware, modify, practice, preserve, demonstrate, approve


Psychomotor taxonomy (Kenneth D. Moore)

Imitation is the input level at which items are reproduced with the help of the trainer. At this stage there is a lack of enough coordination and the movements were slow.
Manipulation – implies the ability of the learner to improve the skill without the help of the trainer, but also without thinking specifically about every detail which has to be improved.
Precision is the highest level of the taxonomy and is characterized with a learner who can carry out the action accurately, efficiently and economically. The automatization and the improvement of the ability to perform are made in in the course of the managing process.


The training program “Training of Trainers” is an educational product that is currently missing in the partner countries – Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania. Due to the early stage of development of the youth sector and youth work in these countries the educational materials aimed at non-formal learning are still limited and insufficient. The lack of adequate educational framework for training of youth workers in the field of formal education leads to inefficient use of the capacity of professionals.

This course fills a gap in the youth sector, namely the need of methodologies for the preparation of trainers, who are able to train youth workers. This course will set the basis for the preparation of teams of trainers of youth workers. The course will serve the goal of development of youth work in the participating countries and other interested parties. A large number of youth workers can be trained according to the methodology at national and international level to use and promote non-formal learning as a tool to enhance the realization of young people in the labor market and increase their social cohesion.

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