Many novice and experienced facilitators struggle with differentiating the methods of training, facilitating, coaching, and mentoring. These concepts can be confusing because, during any given session, a seasoned facilitator can move effortlessly from one method to another in what appears to be a seamless interaction. The article arranges the topics from most structured to least structured, beginning with training and ending with mentoring. The authors define each method, explain how it works, offer examples of when to use the method, and highlight it’s distinguishing factors.
Training as a method of instruction, can be defined as to make or become accomplished by specialized instruction or practice. Training involves the transfer of learning from one individual, usually an expert, to other individuals or a group. When training is achieved, an individual has all the skills and knowledge needed to perform. Performance may include task-related activities (such as learning how to balance a budget), or process related activities (such as learning how to effectively operate as a team). Training, as a method of instruction, helps learners to:
- acquire new information, techniques, and skills
- increase knowledge
- clarify attitudes, beliefs, and/or behaviours
- practice skills
- improve existing skills and
- implement any learning achieved.
How Does Training Work?
Training is a particular form of education or teaching that encompasses the transfer of knowledge and the performance of skill at a later date. In the process of training the trainer has a variety of responsibilities. In addition to being skillful in communicating so that learners understand the meaning and intent of the experience, the trainer must be aware of the learners needs and sensitive to their issues. The trainer’s roles may include presenter, demonstrator, guide, and administrator. Typically the trainer creates specific objectives to be accomplished within a given time period. The trainer manages the time given to ensure that by the end of the session (whether it be 15 minutes or 2 weeks) all objectives are met. The trainer manages the tasks and the processes. The trainer designs the session ahead of time to ensure that the outcome of the training is achieved. These components of the training design include:
- activity being taught
- activity link to specific objectives
- resources and materials needed for activity
- how learning and skill will be assessed
There are many different styles of training delivery– from the professor/lecturer style on one end of the spectrum–to the actor/clown style on the other. Trainers need to know:
- how adults learn
- how to develop measurable obtainable objectives for the session
- how to communicate to a group who may have varying receptive styles
- how to listen
- how to give feedback
- how to handle difficult participants
- how to develop a training script and use training aids
- how to prepare the training environment
- how to present.
When To Use Training:
Training can be used whenever knowledge about content or process needs to transfer from the expert trainer to the learning trainee. Training is usually best accomplished in a 25 to1 or less participant to trainer ratio to ensure the trainer has optimum interaction with participants and can assess the success of the knowledge transfer.
The distinguishing factors for training are:
- transfers knowledge and skill from expert to novice
- results in skill attainment that build on each other and result in a performance
- allows for measurable objectives
People depend on groups to accomplish what individuals alone cannot; yet, groups do not always function in ways that lead to increased effectiveness and desirable outcomes. Facilitation is a method used to help groups develop processes that are effective in order to accomplish desired outcomes. Since facilitation is so broad based and varied according to “context” the authors will focus on one method of facilitation and compare and contrast it to the methods of training, coaching, and mentoring. The Institute for Cultural Affairs developed the facilitation method highlighted. The Institute developed a basic facilitation process that results in more effective communications. It is a process that can be used with individuals or groups. It is also a tool that enables people to initiate and take part in a productive dialogue while helping groups improve the way they identify and solve problems, make decisions, and deal with conflict. This process is referred to as the ORID (Objective, Reflective, Interpretive, and Decisional) method.
How Does Facilitation Work:
This method works by asking a series of questions that takes a group on a journey of consciousness. This method is useful for reflecting on experiences and trying to come to consensus on key decisions. Each discussion is tailor-made for best results and questions have to be relevant to the subject and the group. It is important to prepare questions in advance. Recommendations for the best kind of questions to use in a group discussion include the following guidelines:
- specific questions get better results
- specific examples and illustrations in answers should be asked
- open-ended questions that cannot be answered with “yes” or “no” should be employed.
The primary objective of this method is to direct the thinking of the group involved toward making a decision. The model is built upon by asking a specific sequence of questions that are relevant to the subject and the group. For example, the context of a process may be to “define the role of a facilitator.” The following questions take participants on a four level journey of awareness:
Define the Role of Facilitator
Step I – Objective: To get the facts and focus attention.
Question: What do you see on this list of criteria as the most important attributes of an effective facilitator?
Step II – Reflective: To uncover someone’s emotions, feelings and gut level reaction to an issue.
Question: What excites you about being a facilitator and what concerns you about being a facilitator?
Step III – Interpretive: To determine layers of values, meaning, and purpose regarding an issue.
Question: After reviewing all of these different ways to facilitate, which ones do you think are important to being an effective facilitator?
Step IV – Decisional: To decide on the relationship and response to a topic and the discussion they have had together. To take some kind of action on a definitive short-term outcome.
Question: Now that we have reviewed these issues, which ones are you going to work on?
When To Use Facilitation:
This method can be used to lead group discussions that result in clearly stated ideas and well thought out conclusions. The ORID Method of facilitation can become the basis for:
- collecting data and ideas
- giving out information
- discussing tough issues
- reflecting on important issues and events
- getting ready to do a problem-solving workshop
- group preparation of reports or presentations
It takes some study and practice to become skilled at using this or any facilitation method. The success of this and any facilitation process is determined by the facilitator’s ability to demonstrate the following critical skills and behaviors:
- The ability to facilitate the “journey” of the group: decisions, process, problem solving, team development, strategic planning
- Style: demonstration of effective listening skills, keeping people on track, asking the right questions that probe creativity and insight, analyzing and synthesizing issues, being comfortable with silence, being substantively neutral during group discussions
- Physical Involvement: good eye contact, energy level, positive body language
- Personal Readiness: leaving personal problems outside the door, appropriate dress
The distinguishing factors for facilitation are:
- provides for meaningful dialogue
- broadens perspectives
- results in clear ideas and conclusions
- allows the entire group to participate
- gradually increases a groups’ ability to operate effectively on their own
I never learn anything talking. I only learn things when I ask questions.
Coaching can be defined as a personal and confidential learning process. Typically, it is designed to result in effective action, improved performance, and/or personal growth for the individual and improved business results for the organization. In contrast to other forms of organized learning, i.e., training, facilitating, and mentoring, coaching is highly personal in two ways. It is individualized, recognizing that no two people are alike and is based upon the theory that each person has a unique knowledge base and learning pace and styles; therefore, participants progress at their individual pace. In addition, coaching is the appropriate forum for personal feedback of both strengths and weaknesses.
How Does Coaching Work:
Normally a coach will contract with an individual or an organization to become involved in that individual’s improvement. The coach will clarify areas that need improvement and make sure that the individual understands and can accomplish the changes that it would take to move from a current state to a more advanced, improved state. During the coaching process, the coach affirms and endorses the participant and provides feedback on areas that are working well and those that still may need improvement. If a coach sees a participant slide back into old patterns, discussions are held about what needs to be done to sustain the desired behaviour.
Coaching takes place for the purpose of creating a path for personal change. A clear understanding of the desired outcome of coaching is critical to the success of the process. Appropriate objectives of coaching can be categorized as follows:
- skill development, with emphasis on a specific task
- performance improvement, more broadly aimed at the overall job responsibility
- professional development, focused on future responsibilities
- personal development, looking beyond the professional role
When to Use Coaching:
What coaching involves specifically depends on the participant and the situation. The light speed of business today requires employees to perform critical tasks in key roles, very often without the benefit of experience or training. Sometimes, there are no models to follow. Coaching assists the individual in learning how to perform at the next level, just as an athletic coach can identify what needs to be done differently and guide a player through the changes. Coaching is the appropriate method to use when the individual is highly motivated to make meaningful change, the areas designated for improvement are within the coaches realm of expertise, and the individual or organization commits to the resources needed to see the endeavor from start to finish.
- provides individual attention
- addresses personal development
- motivates and encourages
- requires a “match” trust between coach and participant
The delicate balance of mentoring someone is not creating them in your own image, but giving them the opportunity to create themselves.
A mentor is a trusted counsellor or teacher. Mentoring is the process of walking along side someone to learn from them. The term mentor describes a wide variety of relationship and behaviours. The mentor helps with technical skill, career development, and psychosocial functions. The mentor is usually senior to the mentee with respect to experience, rank, or influence within the organization. Mentoring as a term and practice is hardly new. Students of the classics may remember Telemachus, Odysseus’ son in Homer’s Odessy, who had a guardian and adviser named “mentor.” Mentoring in organizations often takes place on an informal basis. More recently organizations have developed more formal mentoring relationships. While a number of organizations experimented with mentoring programs over the years, most notably in the 70’s and 80’s, they were primarily reserved for marginal and average performers as a tool for performance improvement. Due to the tumultuous events of the past decade, there has been an explosion of mentoring efforts in organizations of all sizes and industries. A survey conducted by Human Resource Executive last year found that the number of companies developing mentoring programs doubled between 1995 and 1996, a percentage growth of 17% to 36%. This renewed interest can be attributed to many factors, such as:
- concern about employee morale and loyalty resulting from major restructuring and downsizing activities
- increased sensitivity to the issues of women and minorities
- the need for succession planning
- major change efforts which propel many organizations today and create the need for more and more skilled leaders
All of these, of course, are fuelled by a highly competitive labour market, a major factor contributing to the growth of mentoring programs. Regardless of the motivation, a growing number of organizations are finding mentoring and the sharing of intellectual capital to be making a profound impact on the individual and the organization.
How Does Mentoring Work:
The mentoring relationship has many definitions and roles. A mentor can be described as a trusted counselor or guide, a teacher, coach or tutor, or simply as someone who takes a personal interest in your career and offers advice and guidance. Mentoring is predominately a one to one activity which begins with rapport, the French word meaning kinship. It requires active listening skills, openness, trust, commitment and emotional maturity. Once the foundation is in place, the relationship is nurtured by a mutual understanding of the goals and desired outcomes of the relationship. It is further guided by measurements, accountability, and results in learning and growth. In effective mentoring relationships both the mentor and protégé avoid dependency and learn to recognize when it is time to let go.
When To Use Mentoring:
While mentoring programs were first created to manage a number of performance related problems, that is not a role for mentoring today. Performance issues are better managed through coaching. True mentor programs develop people by sharing knowledge that provides opportunities for networking, teambuilding, leadership development, and career mobility. Mentoring enhances communications skills, develops interpersonal skills and builds self-confidence.
The distinguishing factors for facilitation are:
- fondness at a personal level
- benefits to both mentor and mentee
- relationships and friendships that bridge many years
As organizational life becomes more and more complex, it is important for facilitators to develop a menu of breakthrough strategies that can help build skill, solve problems, increase effective performance, and build winning teams. The areas of training, facilitation, coaching, and mentoring share unique qualities and yet are very different. As facilitators learn to move effortlessly between each method, knowing the differences between the four is crucial.
Source – International Association of Facilitators 1999 Annual Meeting Williamsburg, Virginia, USA; Jennifer Wild, Rebecca Shambaugh, Jean Isberg, Pamela Kaul – http://www.amauta-international.com/iaf99/Thread3/Wild.html
The training program “Training of Trainers” is an educational product that is currently missing in the partner countries – Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania. Due to the early stage of development of the youth sector and youth work in these countries the educational materials aimed at non-formal learning are still limited and insufficient. The lack of adequate educational framework for training of youth workers in the field of formal education leads to inefficient use of the capacity of professionals.
This course fills a gap in the youth sector, namely the need of methodologies for the preparation of trainers, who are able to train youth workers. This course will set the basis for the preparation of teams of trainers of youth workers. The course will serve the goal of development of youth work in the participating countries and other interested parties. A large number of youth workers can be trained according to the methodology at national and international level to use and promote non-formal learning as a tool to enhance the realization of young people in the labor market and increase their social cohesion.
Part 1 General concepts
- Lesson 1 – What is a trainer? Ethics, morality and responsibility – video
- Lesson 1 – What is a trainer? Ethics, morality and responsibility – text
- Lesson 2 – Principles of Non-formal learning – text
- Lesson 2 – Principles of non-formal learning – web links
- Lesson 2- Principles of non-formal learning – tips and tricks
- Ask yourself – Check your values – reflection
Part 2 Theoretical framework
- Lesson 3 – Most influential theories of learning – text
- Lesson 3 – Most influential theories of learning – web links
- Lesson 4 – Learning Pyramid (Edgar Dales Cone Of Experience) – text
- Lesson 4 – Learning Pyramid (Edgar Dales Cone Of Experience) – web links
- Lesson 5 – Holistic Teaching and Learning 1 – Whole-brain learning – text
- Lesson 5 – Holistic Teaching and Learning 2 – Cooperative learning – text
- Lesson 5 – Holistic Teaching and Learning 3 – Knowledge of whole systems – text
- Lesson 5 – Holistic Teaching and Learning 4 – How to Use the Brain More Effectively – video
- Lesson 6 – Theory of Self-Directed Learning – text
- Lesson 7 – Multiple Intelligence Theory – text
- Lesson 7 – Multiple Intelligence Theory – video
- Lesson 7 – Multiple Intelligence Theory – web links
- Lesson 8 – Social Learning Theory – text
- Lesson 8 – Social Learning Theory – video
- Lesson 9 – Self-efficacy – text
- Lesson 9 – Self-efficacy – video
- Lesson 10 – Experiential learning theory – text
- Lesson 10 – Experiential learning theory – video
- Lesson 11 – Model of Learning styles – text
- Lesson 12 – Learning motivation – text
- Lesson 13 – Learning flow – text
- Lesson 13 – Learning flow – video and web links
- Lesson 14 – The four stages of competence – text and web links
- Lesson 15 – Key competences for lifelong learning – text
- Lesson 16 – Facilitation, Coaching, Mentoring and Training – text
- Lesson 16 – Facilitation, Coaching, Mentoring and Training – video and web links
- Lesson 17 – Developmental Stages of Youth – text
- Lesson 18 – Characteristics of Adult Learners – text
Part 3 Practical skills
- Lesson 19 – Setting learning goals – tips and tricks
- Lesson 20 – Taxonomy of learning goals – text
- Ask yourself – Learning goals vs. Learners needs – reflection
- Lesson 21 – Group Dynamics and Social learning: The Layers Effect – text
- Lesson 22 – Working with groups: Stages of Group Development (group dynamics) 1 – text
- Lesson 22 – Working with groups: Stages of Group Development (group dynamics) 2 – text
- Lesson 22 – Working with groups: Stages of Group Development (group dynamics) 3 – text
- Lesson 22 – Working with groups: Non-formal Methods – video
- Lesson 22 – Working with groups: Before taking action – tips and tricks
- Lesson 22 – Working with groups: Activities collection – try this
- Ask yourself – Group dynamics processes – reflection
- Lesson 23 – Assignment of Activities – text
- Lesson 24 – Communication: Johari window – text
- Lesson 24 – Communication: Listening – text
- Lesson 24 – Communication: Giving and receiving feedback – text
- Lesson 24 – Communication: How to deal with disruptive behavior – text
- Lesson 24 – Communication – tips and tricks
- Lesson 25 – Working in team of trainers – text
- Lesson 26 – The Art of Co-Working – text
- Ask yourself – Team work – reflection
- Lesson 27 – Active reviewing – text
- Lesson 27 – Active reviewing – video
- Lesson 27 – Active reviewing – web links
- Lesson 28 – Debriefing Experiential Learning Exercises – text
- Lesson 29 – Six phases of debriefing – text
- Lesson 30 – Learning methods – text
- Lesson 31 – Training design: ADDIE Model – text
- Lesson 31 – Training design: Construction of the training program – text
- Ask yourself – Training design – reflection
- Lesson 31 – Training design: Process activities – text
- Lesson 31 – Training design: Secret of Happiness – try this
- Ask yourself – Training design – reflection
- Lesson 32 – Training delivery: Things to Pay Attention to during a session – text
- Lesson 32 – Training delivery: Guidelines for the use of interactive games and activities – tips and tricks
- Lesson 33 – Training evaluation – text
- Lesson 33 – Training evaluation – web links
- Lesson 33 – Training evaluation – try this
- Lesson 34 – Training aids: Analogies – text
- Lesson 34 – Training aids: Storytelling – text
- Lesson 34 – Training aids: Storytelling – web links and tools
- Lesson 34 – Training aids: Storytelling – tips and tricks
- Lesson 34 – Training aids: Visuals – text
- Lesson 34 – Training aids: Visuals – web links
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